HomeArchive → Economic and Political Thought Quaterly 2/2010

Economic and Political Thought Quaterly 2/2010

ARTICLES

  • Tadeusz T. Kaczmarek, Methodology of Scientific Research. About Knowledge and Truth in Economic Sciences
  • Martin Dahl, Influence of the Economic Transformation on the Social Sphere in Poland after 1989
  • Ewa Kępka, Structural Changes in the Polish Transport
  • Marian Guzek, Beniamin Kostrubiec, Józef Biskup, Jerzy Kur, GDP Growth Generated as a Result of Multiplier Reaction in Poland and the European Union on Account of  Their Reciprocal Trade in the Years 1992 – 2007
  • Mateusz Tchórzewski, Optimum Individual Income Tax 
  • Zygmunt Janiec, The United Kingdom’s Policy towards the First Post-war Integration Initiatives of Western Europe and the USA 
  • Marta Fiszer, John Paul II on the Role of Culture in the Life of a Man and Nations 
  • Józef M. Fiszer, European Parliament after the Treaty of Lisbon Entered into Force and Elections in June 2009

REVIEWS

  • Franciszek Gołembski, Cultural Aspects of the European Integration (Jerzy Stańczyk)
  • Tadeusz T. Kaczmarek, Global Economy and the World Economic Crisis (Józef M. Fiszer)

SUMMARIES

Tadeusz T. Kaczmarek, Methodology of Scientific Research. About Knowledge and Truth in Economic Sciences

The essay I am presenting to the readers is a contribution to the methodology of scientific research, especially in the economic sciences. I wonder who scientists are and what broadly comprehended science means. Discussing these ideas I move to defining basic structures of science and next to characterizing the incorrect conceptions of scientific methods. It is a very important issue, especially as with the multiplicity of universities in Poland, in “closed” circles, pseudo-scientific groups are created, especially in the field of the so-called financial engineering or computational finance. That is why I mention F. Bacon’s theory of Idols and inductive reasoning. Finally, I recall Isaac Newton’s position on hypotheses and reductionism. I dedicate Karl Popper’s falsification, i.e. a kind of reasoning called verification, especially to young scientists.       

The above-mentioned reflections lead me to an issue of knowledge and truth. This way I come to a conclusion that the essence of truth is conformity of thoughts and believes with reality. 
I hope that my reflections will motivate the generation of young scientists to carry out competent and diligent research in the new century of omnipresent globalization

Martin Dahl, Influence of the Economic Transformation on the Social Sphere in Poland after 1989

 The end of the era of communism in Poland initiated a period of enormous systematic changes which led to the establishment of democracy and introduction of market economy. The transformation of the economic system meant a thorough reform of the Polish economy through substitution of central planning by free market mechanisms. This caused changes not only in the sphere of production but also within the distribution of wealth and in the social sphere. 

The present article is intended to examine the influence of the economic transformation in Poland on the social sphere after 1989. As a research method it uses a theoretical analysis of selected publications and Internet resource materials. In the first part of the article the author presents the origin of the Polish systematic changes started in the late 1980s. Next the main areas of economic changes are characterized. In the final part of the article the author analyses social changes resulting from the introduced economic reforms. 

Ewa Kępka, Structural Changes in the Polish Transport 

 The aim of the publication is to analyze and assess changes that have taken place in the Polish transport since the early 1990s. They involved the transport industry in the field of its structure and ownership, leading to the increase of the number of companies in every branch of transport as well as the development of the private sector. They were also connected with the role of transport in the Polish economy and the structure of haulage. Due to a weaker dynamics of development than in other branches and the change of the structure of the size of businesses, the employment in transport decreased and its position measured as a share in the WDB weakened. The process of integration and liberalization of the transport market, against predictions, did not weaken the dynamics of Polish transport companies, especially those involved in road transport. Road transport became the most important branch of the business with a market share of 70% of the transport of goods. Road transport companies also took full advantage of the possibilities arising from the membership in the uniform market of the European Union

Marian Guzek, Beniamin Kostrubiec, Józef Biskup, Jerzy Kur, GDP Growth Generated as a Result of Multiplier Reaction in Poland and the European Union on Account of  Their Reciprocal Trade in the Years 1992 – 2007

The aim of the present work is to present selected views of specialists in financial law and economics on the desired taxation system, especially corporate income tax. The author tries to do this in a clear way for lawyers and economists as well as laypersons.Firstly, the article discusses some demands for the taxation system made by economists and presents short-term effects of taxation policy based on the IS-LM model. Next, it presents selected opinions of the financial law doctrine on income tax, especially corporate income tax. The article also contains a description of selected institutions of American tax law and some proposals to make use of American experiences in Poland. 

The article is an attempt to take a wide approach to the issue of income tax, especially corporate income tax, including economic opinions as well as fiscal and legal views. Such a broad approach to the issue is a result of a conviction that issues connected with taxation lie on the meeting ground for interests of two sciences which seem to be very distant from each other: law and economics

Zygmunt Janiec, The United Kingdom’s Policy towards the First Post-war Integration Initiatives of Western Europe and the USA

The article discusses the United Kingdom’s policy towards the first post-war integration initiatives of Western Europe and the United States. It was a special period in the history of the European integration. Then, for the first time in the history of Europe, there were real opportunities for practical implementation of at least some of the numerous integration ideas. The initiators and authors of projects to unite Europe were various political organizations of Western Europe and the government of the United States. The United Kingdom was a world superpower at that time and because of various reasons it had to take an ambivalent stand on the issue of Western European integration. On account of the specificity of its international interests, which are thoroughly analyzed by the author, this state could not actively participate in the European integration trend. However, it was not in the British interest to sabotage the integration undertakings of the continental part of Western Europe either. In such circumstances, the United Kingdom forced through a policy of close co-operation between Western European countries as an alternative to integration ideas.    Until 1954 the British policy towards continental integration initiatives can be described as very effective. The United Kingdom skillfully managed to hold up the use of post-war American aid to Europe as a form of stimulus for Western European integration (European Recovery Program – Marshall Plan). As a result of its policy, an authentically European parliamentary assembly, aimed at initiating and stimulating European integration process through grass-roots social pressure on governments (Resolution of the Hague Congress), did not take place. The political and diplomatic successes determined the British assessment of prospects for the European integration and British possibilities to influence the process of Western European unification. They made British politicians incorrectly – as it turned out – believe that the United Kingdom could successfully halt attempts of supranational integration by forcing through an idea of co-operation of sovereign states. After a few years there were no doubts that the assessment had been wrong. In this case traditional attitude towards international politics did badly in comparison with new realities, i.e. an innovative integration trend.

Marta Fiszer, John Paul II on the Role of Culture in the Life of a Man and Nations 

The present article is an attempt to present John Paul II’s opinions on the role of culture in the life of a man and nations, especially the Polish nation, which - deprived of its sovereign state - survived 123 years of national bondage retaining its language and identity. The author tries to show the Pope’s stand on culture in a broad sense and its position in the history of Europe and the processes of its economic, political and social integration. 

In the article the author proposes many interesting theses and hypotheses on John Paul II’s opinions on culture and his stand on culture creation processes as well as the influence of Christianity, especially the Catholic Church, on the Polish culture and European culture. Echoing John Paul II, she proves that culture is one of the most important elements of national ties that are essential for the existence of nations.

Józef M. Fiszer, European Parliament after the Treaty of Lisbon Entered into Force and Elections in June 2009

The European Parliament is one of the major and most important organs of the European Union and Communities and its role and participation in those institutions’ decision making process increases systematically, simultaneously with every successive reforming treaty entering into force. The present article is an attempt to present the European Parliament after the latest great events in the European Union, i.e. the election of June 2009 and 1 December 2009, when the Treaty of Lisbon came into force. The author attempts to answer numerous questions that are asked in connection with the last European election and the Treaty of Lisbon. He tries to show how this election and the Treaty of Lisbon changed the image of the European Parliament and strengthened its competence. He proposes many interesting theses, including one that the European election of 2009 together with the treaty of Lisbon are a turning point not only in the history of the European Parliament but also the history of the European integration and its effect: the European Union. In the article, there are many references to Poland and its experiences after the accession to the European Union in 2004 and in the European Parliament. The author proves that today the Poles are satisfied with the European Union membership and feel more confident in the European Parliament and in all the European Union salons.

 

Economic and Political Thought Quaterly 2/2010Economic and Political Thought Quaterly 2/2010